PVC etc. Flange fittings are generally used for connections to valves, inline instruments or equipment nozzles. Two surfaces are joined tightly together with threaded bolts, wedges, clamps, or other means of applying high compressive force. Although a gasket, packing, or O-ring may be installed between the flanges to prevent leakage, it is sometimes possible to use only a special grease or nothing at all . Although flange fittings are bulky, they perform well in demanding applications such as large water supply networks and hydroelectric systems. Elbows are used to change the direction of flow between two pipes.
Unlike metal welding, solvent welding is relatively easy to perform . Solvents typically used for plastics are usually toxic and may be carcinogenic and flammable, requiring adequate ventilation. In drainage systems, it is primarily used to connect horizontal drains to vertical drains. The center connection is generally to the pipe leading to a trap . It must not connect a vertical drain to a horizontal drain, because of the likelihood that solids will accumulate at the bottom of the junction and cause a blockage.
Long elbows are used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern. They are available in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene , polyvinyl chloride , chlorinated polyvinyl chloride , and copper, and are used in DWV systems, sewage, and central vacuum systems. This section discusses fittings primarily used in pressurized piping systems, though there is some overlap with fittings for low-pressure or non-pressurized systems. Specialized fittings for the latter setups are discussed in the next major subsection.
Wye tee allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45° angle. This type of tee reduces friction and turbulence that could hamper the flow. A barred tee which is also known as a scrapper tee is used in pipelines that are pigged. The branch of the tee has a restriction bar welded internally to prevent the pig or scrapper to enter the branch. The bars are welded in the branch in a way that it will allow restriction free passage of the pig from the run pipe.
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A galvanized coating of metallic zinc was often used to protect steel water pipes from corrosion, but this protective coating eventually would dissolve away, exposing the iron to deterioration. Pipes used to convey fuel gas are often made of “black iron”, which has been chemically treated to reduce corrosion, but this treatment does not resist erosion from flowing water. Hydraulic systems use high fluid pressure, such as the hydraulic actuators for bulldozers and backhoes. Their hydraulic fittings are designed and rated for much greater pressure than that experienced in general piping systems, and they are generally not compatible with those used in plumbing.
Quality GroovJoint fittings carry approvals by UL, ULC, and NSF-61. Flexible fittings may also be used to reduce transmission of vibration into the DWV system. Although the fittings are not cheap, they are reasonably durable .
This generally requires that the piping and fitting are the same material. Skill is required to melt the joint sufficiently to ensure good fusion, while not deforming or damaging the pieces being joined. A trap primer automatically injects water into a trap, maintaining a water seal to keep sewer gas out of buildings.